UGC Net Computer Science Paper 1 December 12 , Page 6 Solved
51. Which of the following sampling methods is based on probability ?
(A) Convenience sampling
(B) Quota sampling
(C) Judgement sampling
(D) Stratified sampling
A convenience sample is one of the main types of non-probability sampling methods. A convenience sample is made up of people who are easy to reach.
Consider the following example. A Company interviews shoppers at a local mall. If the mall was chosen because it was a convenient site from which to solicit survey participants and/or because it was close to the Company 's home or business, this would be a convenience sample.
A sampling method of gathering representative data from a group. As opposed to random sampling, quota sampling requires that representative individuals are chosen out of a specific subgroup. For example, a researcher might ask for a sample of 100 females, or 100 individuals between the ages of 20-30.
Judgment sample is a type of nonrandom sample that is selected based on the opinion of an expert. Results obtained from a judgment sample are subject to some degree of bias, due to the frame and population not being identical. The frame is a list of all the units, items, people, etc., that define the population to be studied.
For example, when interviewing manufacturers in the pharmaceutical industry to determine their preferred brand of equipment, the schedules, availability and willingness of the possible subjects are taken into account. Rather than performing random sampling and selecting subjects who are unavailable, an expert employs judgment sampling and selects units whose availability and attitude are compatible with the study.
Stratified sampling refers to a type of sampling method . With stratified sampling, the researcher divides the population into separate groups, called strata. Then, a probability sample (often a simple random sample ) is drawn from each group.
Stratified sampling has several advantages over simple random sampling. For example, using stratified sampling, it may be possible to reduce the sample size required to achieve a given precision. Or it may be possible to increase the precision with the same sample size.
52. Which one of the following references is written according to American Psychological Association (APA) format ?
(A) Sharma, V. (2010). Fundamentals of Computer Science. New Delhi : Tata McGraw Hill
(B) Sharma, V. 2010. Fundamentals of Computer Science. New Delhi : Tata McGraw Hill
(C) Sharma.V. 2010. Fundamentals of Computer Science, New Delhi : Tata McGraw Hill
(D) Sharma, V. (2010), Fundamentals of Computer Science,New Delhi : Tata McGraw Hill
53. Arrange the following steps of research in correct sequence :
1. Identification of research problem
2. Listing of research objectives
3. Collection of data
5. Data analysis
6. Results and discussion
(A) 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6
(B) 1 – 2 – 4 – 3 – 5 – 6
(C) 2 – 1 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6
(D) 2 – 1 – 4 – 3 – 5 – 6
54. Identify the incorrect statement :
(A) A hypothesis is made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further nvestigations.
(B) A hypothesis is a basis for reasoning without any assumption of its truth.
(C) Hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
(D) Scientific hypothesis is a scientific theory.
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions (55 to 60) :
The popular view of towns and cities in developing countries and of urbanization process is
that despite the benefits and comforts it brings, the emergence of such cities connotes environmental degradation, generation of slums and squatters, urban poverty, unemployment,crimes, lawlessness, traffic chaos etc. But what is the reality ? Given the unprecedental increase in urban population over the last 50 years from 300 million in 1950 to 2 billion in 2000 in developing countries, the wonder really is how well the world has coped, and not how badly.
In general, the urban quality of life has improved in terms of availability of water and sanitation, power, health and education, communication and transport. By way of illustration, a large number of urban residents have been provided with improved water in urban areas in Asia’s largest countries such as China, India, Indonesia and Philippines. Despite that, the access to improved water in terms of percentage of total urban population seems to have declined during the last decade of 20th century, though in absolute numbers, millions of additional urbanites, have been provided improved services. These countries have made significant progress in the provision of sanitation services too, together, providing for an additional population of more than 293 million citizens within a decade (1990-2000). These improvements must be viewed against the backdrop of rapidly increasing urban population, fiscal crunch and strained human resources and efficient and quality-oriented public management.
55. The popular view about the process of urbanization in developing countries is
(A) Positive (B) Negative
(C) Neutral (D) Unspecified
56. The average annual increase in the number of urbanites in developing countries, from 1950
to 2000 A.D. was close to
(A) 30 million (B) 40 million
(C) 50 million (D) 60 million
57. The reality of urbanization is reflected in
(A) How well the situation has been managed.
(B) How badly the situation has gone out of control.
(C) How fast has been the tempo of urbanization.
(D) How fast the environment has degraded.
58. Which one of the following is not considered as an indicator of urban quality of life ?
(A) Tempo of urbanization
(B) Provision of basic services
(C) Access to social amenities
(D) All the above
59. The author in this passage has tried to focus on
(A) Extension of Knowledge
(B) Generation of Environmental Consciousness
(C) Analytical Reasoning
(D) Descriptive Statement
60. In the above passage, the author intends to state
(A) The hazards of the urban life
(B) The sufferings of the urban life
(C) The awareness of human progress
(D) The limits to growth