Saturday, 27 February 2016


Mainly used in LAN in which entire capacity of the medium is dedicated to a particular device, Simple and small than broad band.

     Digital communication technology in which (in contrast to 'broadband') the entire bandwidth (data carrying capacity) of a medium such as a wire, cable, or channel, is used to transmit a single signal. Therefore, only one communication channel is available at any given time. Baseband is cheaper and simpler (though less versatile) technology than broadband, and is employed in most types of local area networks such as Ethernet and Token Ring.

Why was the OSI developed

  • Educational purpose
  • To make a standard which help to vender for developed network hardware
  • Making a good understanding people of networking concept
  • It’s just a model which help making networking concept more depict able 
  • Making Layering concept more clear than TCP/IP

Directory Service

User friendly information about network resources

     A directory service or name service, maps the names of network resources to their respective network addresses. With the name service type of directory, a user does not have to remember the physical address of a network resource; providing a name locates the resource. Each resource on the network is considered an object on the directory server. Information about a particular resource is stored as attributes of that object. Information within objects can be made secure so that only users with the available permissions are able to access it. More sophisticated directories are designed with namespaces as Subscribers, Services, Devices, Entitlements, Preferences, Content and so on. This design process is highly related to Identity management.

Friday, 26 February 2016

C Language program to shift array element with previous one

/* Girfa : C Language program to shift array element with previous one*/
/* Find more question Answer on */
void main()
int ar[5],i,j;

Thursday, 25 February 2016

Subnet Mask - Subnetting

   The subnet mask is used to divide a network into a further sub network within A private network. Subnetting can be used for security purpose in many cases it enable a network administrator to divide a college network for example into many departments like Botany, Art and Science group network.

   Subnetting is applied on host id we reserve host id bits for subnetting from left to right following example depict all aspects of operation 

What is Subnetting?

Subnetting enables the network administrator to further divide the host part of the address into two or more subnets. In this case, a part of the host address is reserved to identify the particular subnet. This is easier to see if we show the IP address in binary format.

The full address is:

Soft carriage Return

A soft break or soft return is a carriage return automatically inserted by the software program usually because of a word wrap. Soft returns allow you to continue typing without having to press the return key manually at the end of each line. The picture shows an example of soft returns with formatting marks enabled. The soft returns look like an arrow that goes down and then points to the left, much like the arrow seen on the enter key.

In the picture above blue line indicate hard carriage return and red soft carriage return.

Wednesday, 24 February 2016

Narrowband ISDN

The first generation of ISDN is called as a narrowband ISDN and it is based on the use of 64 kbps channel as the basic unit of switching and has a circuit switching orientation. The main device in the narrowband ISDN is the frame relay. The second generation of ISDN is referred to as the broadband ISDN (B-ISDN).

Trunk in networking


Trunk (Branches between exchanges) in networking is links which enables to connect many clients from a network through sharing a medium or wire frequency we can take example of tree for better understand of trunk.
Tree has a root and many branches whose fulfill their requirement from root.

A trunk is a single transmission channel between two points, each point being either the switching center or the node.

Telephone Local Loop

What is a 'Local Loop'?

The Local Loop in a telephone network (sometimes referred to as the "last mile" of the network) is
the bit that connects your home to your local telephone exchange. It refers literally to the copper
cables that run from your home to the telephone exchange.

Tuesday, 23 February 2016

Dynamic Array in PHP

     The array is a collection of similar data types which occupies continuous location in memory. There are two types of array static and dynamic. In dynamic array size can be decreased and increase as requirement which best uses of memory utilization on the other hand static array is fixed in nature you cannot increase and decrease array capacity when require so it’s not popular in PHP. We deal with mostly dynamic array in PHP.

Dynamic Array example code :


echo  "<br>" . ($i+1) . "'st element value " . $ar[$i];

Example 2:

for ($i = 0; $i <$10; $i++)

echo "<h2>" . $ar[$i] . "</h2>";

Monday, 22 February 2016


     If the number of frames allocated to a low-priority process falls below the minimum number required by the computer architecture, we must suspend that process's execution. We should then page out its remaining pages, freeing all its allocated frames. This provision introduces a swap-in, swap-out level of intermediate CPU scheduling.

     In fact, look at any process that does not have "enough" frames. If the process does not have the number of frames it needs to support pages in active use, it will quickly page-fault. At this point, it must replace some page. However, since all its pages are in active use, it must replace a page that will be needed again right away. Consequently, it quickly faults again, and again, and again, replacing pages that it must bring back in immediately.

     This high paging activity is called thrashing.A process is thrashing if it is spending more time paging than executing.

Reason of Thrashing

     Thrashing results in severe performance problems. Consider the following scenario, which is based on the actual behavior of early paging systems.

SHA1 PHP encryption function

SHA1 accept a string as a key and return hash string which is encrypted. For decryption key is required, which is used in the encryption.


string sha1 ( string $str [, bool $raw_output = false ] )

If the optional raw_output is set to TRUE, then the sha1 digest is instead returned in raw binary format with a length of 20, otherwise the returned value is a 40-character hexadecimal number.

Sunday, 21 February 2016

Preemption in OS

In computing, preemption is the act of temporarily interrupting a task being carried out by a computer system, without requiring its cooperation, and with the intention of resuming the task at a later time. Such a change is known as a context switch. It is normally carried out by a privileged task or part of the system known as a preemptive scheduler, which has the power to preempt, or interrupt, and later resume, other tasks in the system.

Friday, 19 February 2016

Tags - Display HTML code in HTML

There are many times when we want to show HTML tags on our web page mainly when we make some HTML tutorial type application. This enables you to show an HTML code example on your webpage. Following code help you

<h1>Test </h1>

&lt marquee &gt

Thursday, 18 February 2016

PHP Variable Scope

Local Variable

     A local variable is accessible only the block where it has defined. When a code block over then the entire local variable inside of block automatically released by the compiler.
            function fun1()
                        echo $a;
            function fun2()
                        echo $a+10;
                        // Error : Undefined variable: a because it has not defined in fun2 and a is local variable for  fun1

Global Variable

     The scope of a PHP variable depends on where it has defined I.e. when a variable is declared in top side of the PHP code block, then it becomes global variable for all PHP code block but not inside of a function.

Saturday, 13 February 2016

M4.1-R4 Application of .NET Technology

M3-R4 Programming and Problem Solving through ‘C’ language

Internet Technology and Web Design

IT Tools and Business Systems

Thursday, 11 February 2016

HTML: Special Characters

HTML Entity(case sensitive)
ISO Latin-1 code
name or meaning
en dash
em dash
inverted exclamation
inverted question mark
quotation mark
left double curly quote
right double curly quote

apostrophe (single quote)
left single curly quote
right single curly quote


Tuesday, 9 February 2016

HTML Tutorial


What Is HTML?

HTML is a markup language, not a programming language. In fact, the term HTML is an acronym that stands for Hypertext Markup Language. You can apply this markup language to your pages to display text, images, sound and movie files, and almost any other type of electronic information. You use the language to format documents and link them together, regardless of the type of computer with which the file was originally created.
HTML is written as plain text that any Web browser or word processing software can read. The software does this by identifying specific elements of a document (such as heading, body, and footer), and then defining the way those elements should behave. These elements, called tags, are created by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
simple HTML page
<title>My Second Web Page</title>
Place Your Code Here


In HTML, a paragraph is created whenever you insert text between the <p> tags
<p>This is my first XHTML page.</p>

HTML enables you to add six different heading tags to your pages by using the tags <h1><h6>. These tags are very simple to use.

<h1>This is Heading 1</h1>

Saturday, 6 February 2016

Object Oriented Programming (OOPS)

Object Oriented Programming Banner OOP


     In object oriented programming basic working unit start with a class. Class is a template which comprises all the aspect of an object which is a instance of a class.

     In OOP we first create a class to solve any problem. A Class is divide into two parts first is Data section other is function or method section. In data section we get data member which are needed to solve a problem and function section we implement function section functions are defined which handle data.

Class Diagram example OOPs

Monday, 1 February 2016

How to make HTML File using PHP

If you are familiar with C filing programming then your knowledge will be work here. Just copy and paste the following complete code and implement your logic as you want 

$myfile = fopen($_POST['fnm'].".html", "w") or die("Unable to open file!");
fwrite($myfile, $_POST['msg']);

YouTube HTML 5 Embed iframe code from URL with PHP

Hi folks
I was making a website and my client request me to upload youtube video on his website. For do this take some fact about youtube video

  • When upload video. Youtube provide a unique URL for every uploaded video which user can use to share their video to other platform or other youtube user.
  • Iframe is used to show youtube video on other website
  • An embedded URL need in iframe SRC